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Moussaoui Prosecutors Defy Judge
Refusal to Produce Key Witness May Lead to Indictment's Dismissal

  Zacarias Moussaoui, accused of conspiracy. (File Photo)

_____From FindLaw_____
Order (U.S. v. Moussaoui) (PDF)
4th Cir. Opinion (U.S. v. Moussaoui)
Gov't Position Re: Court-Ordered Deposition (PDF)
_____Moussaoui Trial_____
U.S. Withholds Witness in Moussaoui Case (Associated Press, Jul 14, 2003)
Moussaoui Prosecutors Try Appeal Once Again (The Washington Post, Jul 11, 2003)
Moussaoui Judge Prods U.S. to Produce al Qaeda Witness (The Washington Post, Jul 8, 2003)
_____On the Web_____
United States v. Zacarias Moussaoui
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By Jerry Markon
Washington Post Staff Writer
Tuesday, July 15, 2003; Page A01

The Justice Department yesterday refused to produce a key witness in the case against Zacarias Moussaoui, defying a federal court order and acknowledging that the judge will likely dismiss the indictment against the only person charged in the United States in connection with the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks.

The government's action raises the possibility that the case against Moussaoui could move to a military tribunal, but Justice Department officials indicated last night that they were determined to keep it in the civilian courts and that they intend to appeal any dismissal of the charges to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 4th Circuit.

But first, prosecutors must go before the federal judge who ordered that they produce the witness, Ramzi Binalshibh, the self-described planner of the Sept. 11 attacks on the World Trade Center and Pentagon. U.S. District Judge Leonie M. Brinkema likely will impose sanctions for the government's failure to allow Moussaoui and his attorneys to question Binalshibh. The expected punishment is the dismissal of the charges, but Brinkema could choose lesser consequences, such as removing the death penalty as an option, reducing the charges or striking all mentions of Binalshibh from the indictment.

The government's refusal to produce Binalshibh underscores the delicate balancing act among lawyers and judges in the Moussaoui case. In a brief filed in Alexandria last night, U.S. Attorney Paul J. McNulty told Brinkema that her order "is unacceptable to the Government, which not only carries the responsibility of prosecuting the defendant, but also of protecting this nation's security at a time of war with an enemy who has already murdered thousands of our citizens."

Prosecutors had already appealed Brinkema's ruling to the 4th Circuit. A three-judge panel earlier rejected the appeal on procedural grounds but said the government could appeal again if Brinkema imposed sanctions for defying her order. Those sanctions could come as early as today, but Brinkema also could set a hearing date on the issue.

Yesterday, the slate of active 4th Circuit judges upheld the panel's earlier ruling. But the court split 7 to 5 and issued a series of heated opinions that highlighted how the case has raised new legal issues between a defendant's constitutional rights and the government's national security responsibilities. The judges also strongly hinted as to how they might rule if the case comes before them again.

In a blistering dissent, Judge J. Michael Luttig accused Brinkema, the three-judge panel and the rest of his colleagues of failing "to appreciate the fragility of the intelligence-gathering process." Prosecutors have called Binalshibh a key intelligence source, and they said that disrupting his interrogation would irreparably harm national security.

"Because of this failure," Luttig wrote, "I believe my colleagues have gravely underestimated the effect that their respective orders and decisions have already had, and now will continue to have, on the Nation's intelligence gathering during this critical period of our history, as we wage war against terrorism."

Dissents were also authored by Judge J. Harvie Wilkinson III and Judge H. Emory Widener Jr.

But William W. Wilkins Jr., the court's chief judge and a member of the panel that issued the earlier ruling, asserted that he believed that "my colleagues have allowed the importance of the issues involved in the underlying merits of this appeal to cloud their judgment on the purely legal question of jurisdiction."

"Siding with the Government in all cases where national security concerns are asserted," Wilkins added, "would entail surrender of the independence of the judicial branch and abandonment of our sworn commitment to uphold the rule of law."

Less than 30 minutes after yesterday's 4th Circuit decision, prosecutors made official what sources close to the case have been saying for months: that they would refuse to produce Binalshibh for the deposition ordered by Brinkema. They said the deposition "would involve an admitted and unrepentant terrorist (the defendant) questioning one of his al Qaeda confederates" and would result in the unauthorized disclosure of classified information.

The filing, written and signed by Assistant U.S. Attorney Robert A. Spencer, said Attorney General John D. Ashcroft had signed a classified affidavit objecting to the disclosure. "The government recognizes that the Attorney General's objection means that the deposition cannot go forward and obligates the court to now dismiss the indictment unless the Court finds that the interests of justice can be served by another action," Spencer wrote.

But Spencer also asked Brinkema to delay any action pending the government's likely appeal to the 4th Circuit. Prosecutors also asked that they be allowed to file legal arguments if Brinkema considers lesser sanctions than dismissal.

Moussaoui, who is representing himself, and his legal team, which Brinkema appointed as standby attorneys, contend that Binalshibh has information vital to the defense. They also asked for access to other al Qaeda witnesses, but Brinkema sided with the government in ruling that they were not crucial to Moussaoui's defense. The indictment says Binalshibh wired money to both Moussaoui and one of the Sept. 11 hijackers -- potentially key evidence tying Moussaoui to the conspiracy. Moussaoui, a French citizen, was indicted in December 2001 on charges of conspiring with al Qaeda in the Sept. 11 attacks. He faces the death penalty if convicted.

2003 The Washington Post Company